Particle-Particle interaction#

In this notebook, we show an example of the new ‘particle-particle-interaction’ functionality in Parcels. Note that this functionality is still in development, and the implementation is fairly rudimentary and slow for now. Importantly:

  • Particle-particle interaction only works in Scipy mode

  • The type of interactions that are supported is still limited

Interactions are implemented through InteractionKernels, which are similar to normal Kernels. The InteractionKernels are applied between particles that are located closer to each other than a specified interaction_distance. In general, the code structure needs three adaptations to apply particle-particle interaction:

  1. The ParticleSet requires an interaction_distance argument upon creation, to define the interaction_distance.

  2. ParticleSet.execute() requires the pyfunc_inter argument, which contains the InteractionKernels that will be executed, similarly to the pyfunc argument for normal Kernels.

  3. InteractionKernels have two additional arguments compared to normal Kernels:

def InteractionKernel(particle, fieldset, time, neighbors, mutator)

The neighbors argument provides a list of the particles that are within a neighborhood (i.e. closer than the interaction_distance argument in ParticleSet creation).

The mutator argument is an initially empty list with all the mutations that need to be performed on particles at the end of running all InteractionKernels on all particles. This mutator argument is required, because otherwise the order at which interactions are applied has implications for the simulation. As a consequence, the simulation will likely be dependent on the order of the particle list if no mutator list is used.

Pulling particles#

Below is an example of what can be done with particle-particle interaction. We create a square grid of \(N\times N\) particles, which are all subject to Brownian Motion (via the built-in DiffusionUniformKh Kernel). Furthermore, some of the particles also ‘attract’ other particles that are within the interaction distance: these attracted particles move with a constant velocity to the attracting particles.

[1]:
%matplotlib notebook
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import xarray as xr
from IPython.display import HTML
from matplotlib.animation import FuncAnimation

from parcels import (
    DiffusionUniformKh,
    FieldSet,
    MergeWithNearestNeighbor,
    NearestNeighborWithinRange,
    ParticleSet,
    ScipyInteractionParticle,
    ScipyParticle,
    Variable,
)
[2]:
def Pull(particle, fieldset, time, neighbors, mutator):
    """InterActionKernel that "pulls" all neighbor particles
    toward the attracting particle with a constant velocity"""
    distances = []
    na_neighbors = []
    # only execute kernel for particles that are 'attractor'
    if not particle.attractor:
        return StateCode.Success
    for n in neighbors:
        if n.attractor:
            continue
        x_p = np.array([particle.depth, particle.lat, particle.lon])
        x_n = np.array([n.depth, n.lat, n.lon])

        # compute distance between attracted and attracting particle
        distances.append(np.linalg.norm(x_p - x_n))
        na_neighbors.append(n)

    velocity = 0.04  # predefined attracting velocity
    for n in na_neighbors:
        assert n.dt == particle.dt
        dx = np.array(
            [particle.lat - n.lat, particle.lon - n.lon, particle.depth - n.depth]
        )
        dx_norm = np.linalg.norm(dx)

        # calculate vector of position change
        distance = velocity * n.dt
        d_vec = distance * dx / dx_norm

        # define mutation function for mutator
        def f(n, dlat, dlon, ddepth):
            n.lat_nextloop += (
                dlat  # note that we need to change the locations for the next loop
            )
            n.lon_nextloop += dlon
            n.depth_nextloop += ddepth

        # add mutation to the mutator
        mutator[n.id].append((f, d_vec))
[3]:
npart = 11

X, Y = np.meshgrid(np.linspace(-1, 1, npart), np.linspace(-1, 1, npart))

# Define a fieldset without flow
fieldset = FieldSet.from_data({"U": 0, "V": 0}, {"lon": 0, "lat": 0}, mesh="flat")
fieldset.add_constant_field("Kh_zonal", 0.0005, mesh="flat")
fieldset.add_constant_field("Kh_meridional", 0.0005, mesh="flat")


# Create custom particle class with extra variable that indicates
# whether the interaction kernel should be executed on this particle.
InteractingParticle = ScipyParticle.add_variable(
    "attractor", dtype=np.bool_, to_write="once"
)


attractor = [
    True if i in [int(npart * npart / 2 - 3), int(npart * npart / 2 + 3)] else False
    for i in range(npart * npart)
]
pset = ParticleSet(
    fieldset=fieldset,
    pclass=InteractingParticle,
    lon=X,
    lat=Y,
    interaction_distance=0.5,  # note the interaction_distance argument here
    attractor=attractor,
)

output_file = pset.ParticleFile(name="InteractingParticles.zarr", outputdt=1)

pset.execute(
    pyfunc=DiffusionUniformKh,
    pyfunc_inter=Pull,  # note the pyfunc_inter here
    runtime=60,
    dt=1,
    output_file=output_file,
)
INFO: Output files are stored in InteractingParticles.zarr.
  0%|          | 0/60.0 [00:00<?, ?it/s]INFO: Compiled ParcelsRandom ==> /var/folders/1n/500ln6w97859_nqq86vwpl000000gr/T/parcels-504/parcels_random_fec11e5e-713b-43cc-b561-8d45de86d6f2.c
WARNING: Some InteractionKernel was not completed succesfully, likely because a Particle threw an error that was not captured.
100%|██████████| 60.0/60.0 [00:02<00:00, 28.27it/s]
[4]:
%%capture
data_xarray = xr.open_zarr("InteractingParticles.zarr")
data_attr = data_xarray.where(data_xarray["attractor"].compute() == 1, drop=True)
data_other = data_xarray.where(data_xarray["attractor"].compute() == 0, drop=True)

timerange = np.arange(
    np.nanmin(data_xarray["time"].values),
    np.nanmax(data_xarray["time"].values),
    np.timedelta64(1, "s"),  # timerange in nanoseconds
)

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(4, 4), constrained_layout=True)
ax = fig.add_subplot()

ax.set_ylabel("Meridional distance [m]")
ax.set_xlabel("Zonal distance [m]")
ax.set_xlim(-1.1, 1.1)
ax.set_ylim(-1.1, 1.1)

time_id = np.where(
    data_other["time"] == timerange[0]
)  # Indices of the data where time = 0
time_id_attr = np.where(
    data_attr["time"] == timerange[0]
)  # Indices of the data where time = 0

scatter = ax.scatter(
    data_other["lon"].values[time_id],
    data_other["lat"].values[time_id],
    c="b",
    s=5,
    zorder=1,
)
scatter_attr = ax.scatter(
    data_attr["lon"].values[time_id_attr],
    data_attr["lat"].values[time_id_attr],
    c="r",
    s=40,
    zorder=2,
)

circs = []
for lon_a, lat_a in zip(
    data_attr["lon"].values[time_id_attr], data_attr["lat"].values[time_id_attr]
):
    circs.append(
        ax.add_patch(
            plt.Circle(
                (lon_a, lat_a), 0.25, facecolor="None", edgecolor="r", linestyle="--"
            )
        )
    )

t = str(timerange[0].astype("timedelta64[s]"))
title = ax.set_title("Particles at t = " + t + " (Red particles are attractors)")


def animate(i):
    t = str(timerange[i].astype("timedelta64[s]"))
    title.set_text("Particles at t = " + t + "\n (Red particles are attractors)")

    time_id = np.where(data_other["time"] == timerange[i])
    time_id_attr = np.where(data_attr["time"] == timerange[i])
    scatter.set_offsets(
        np.c_[data_other["lon"].values[time_id], data_other["lat"].values[time_id]]
    )
    scatter_attr.set_offsets(
        np.c_[
            data_attr["lon"].values[time_id_attr], data_attr["lat"].values[time_id_attr]
        ]
    )
    for c, lon_a, lat_a in zip(
        circs,
        data_attr["lon"].values[time_id_attr],
        data_attr["lat"].values[time_id_attr],
    ):
        c.center = (lon_a, lat_a)
    return (
        scatter,
        scatter_attr,
        circs,
    )


anim = FuncAnimation(fig, animate, frames=len(timerange), interval=200, blit=True)
data_xarray.close()
[5]:
HTML(anim.to_jshtml())
[5]: